Two similar enhanced root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains differ largely in their colonization strategies of avocado roots and Rosellinia necatrix hyphae. Asthana and Hawker’s medium Grey White Irregular Aerial mycelium Grey Corn meal agar Dark grey White Regular Aerial mycelium Grey Host leaf dextrose agar Dull white / Light grey Brown Irregular Aerial mycelium Dark grey Malt … Compounds were then desorbed for 10 min in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 220°C with the purge valve off (split-less mode). (A) Colony morphology of wild-type A. solani (WT), mutants (Δslt2 and Δsod) and complementation strains (Δslt2-C and Δsod-C). 2. Two Bacillus velezensis strains 5YN8 and DSN012 could suppress the growth and spore formation of B. cinerea by releasing numbers of VOCs (Jiang et al., 2018). Fumigant activity of volatiles of Streptomyces globisporus JK-1 against Penicillium italicum on Citrus microcarpa. Paeonia lactiflora 37 mm) against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Mon-ilia linhartiana 869, Phytophthora cryptogea 759/1 and Rhizoctonia sp. Antifungal activities of plant-beneficial Bacillus have been widely studied in recent years. Gene deletion vector construction and transformation of A. solani were generated by the double-joint PCR method with minor modification (Yu et al., 2004). These results are useful for a better understanding of the biocontrol mechanism of Bacillus and offer a potential method for potato early blight disease control. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Weir, T.L., D.R. Nat. Untersuchungen fiber Alternaria solani, Jones et Grout, ins besondere fiber seine Pathogenit/it an Kartoffelknollen in Abhangigkeit yon den Aussen- faktoren. View all 8, 173–184. Effects of strain ZD01 volatiles on mycelia penetration and morphology as well as conidia germination of A. solani. Whether the other five species also play a role in potato foliar diseases in China is still unknown. Production of volatile organic compounds by an antagonistic strain Paenibacillus polymyxa WR-2 in the presence of root exudates and organic fertilizer and their antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. The analysis was performed in full-scan mode. Alternaria Mol. (2016). They readily cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients. doi: 10.1007/s12275-010-0068-z, Keywords: antifungal activity, Bacillus subtilis, volatile organic compounds, airborne phytopathogens, Alternaria solani, Citation: Zhang D, Yu S, Yang Y, Zhang J, Zhao D, Pan Y, Fan S, Yang Z and Zhu J (2020) Antifungal Effects of Volatiles Produced by Bacillus subtilis Against Alternaria solani in Potato. Key words: Variability, Isolates, early blight, Alternaria solani Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most important changes in the physiology of teh pathogen to become food crop grown throughout the world. (n = 3). FEMS Microbiol. 26, 925–932. 37, 955–964. For the VOC treatment groups, plugs (5 mm in diameter) of wild-type A. solani were spotted onto the center of PDA plate with a cellophane. Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. 115, 220–227. Plant Dis., 88: 959-964. (2014). For VOC extraction, the Bacillus strain was inoculated into 6 ml of LB medium in a 20-ml vial. Alternaria species are known as major plant pathogens. Raza, W., Yuan, J., Ling, N., Huang, Q., and Shen, Q. Identification of a genetic locus required for biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin in Bacillus subtilis. 88, 181–187. By following the methods of Gong et al. All authors contributed to the manuscript and approved the submitted version. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. It is the causative agent of leaf blight of wheat … Environ. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2010.06.003, Li, Q., Ning, P., Zheng, L., Huang, J., Li, G., and Hsiang, T. (2012). Potato is one of the most important crops in the world. For instance, VOCs produced by B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 could hinder growth and spore germination of the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Growth characteristics of Alternaria alternata . 19, 49–58. Control represents A. solani without treatment of ZD01 VOCs; ZD01 represents A. solani with treatment of ZD01 VOCs. However, 6-methyl-2-heptanone exhibited large peak areas on the GCs, and it did show strong antifungal effects against A. solani with 100% inhibition. Fungal Genet. We performed BLAST search using the DNA sequence of the16S rRNA gene of ZD01 as a query against the NCBI GenBank database. doi: 10.1007/s11274-009-0255-4, Gao, Z., Zhang, B., Liu, H., Han, J., and Zhang, Y. DaZ, ZY, and JieZ wrote the manuscript. . Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Molecular and biological characterization of a novel strain of Alternaria alternata chrysovirus 1 identified from the pathogen Alternaria tenuissima causing watermelon leaf blight. Data were analyzed by SPSS20.0 Windows Software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). The down-regulated expression of slt2 was consistent with the reduced virulence in A. solani. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.09.004, Rui, O., and Hahn, M. (2007). mVOC: a database of microbial volatiles. Meanwhile, A. solani cells exposed to VOCs produced by strain ZD01 formed swollen part of hyphae with defective ability, leading to aborted invasion to the plant barrier. A. alternata The experiment was repeated three times. Biotechnol. doi: 10.1094/mpmi.2002.15.12.1268. Phylo-genetic analysis based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of repre-sentative Alternaria isolates … These results were consistent with the reduced pathogenicity in vivo. However, hyphae treated with VOCs from ZD01 exhibited substantial structural destruction (Figure 2B). . Species Causing Leaf Blight on Watermelon in China Sporulation of Altemaria solani. Alternaria solani. Shift in sensitivity of Alternaria solani in response to QoI fungicides. 341, 45–51. LB plates without ZD01 were used as control. Figure 2. Alternaria solani: Taxonomy navigation › Alternaria sect. Strain ZD01 was then identified by 16s rRNA and complete genome sequencing. Antifungal activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 volatile compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. After transforming the constructed plasmid into HWC-168, the subsequent deletion mutants were verified by PCR with slt2-F/R and sod-F/R (Supplementary Table S4). slt2 is a key gene that regulates the mycelial growth, penetration, sporulation, and virulence in vivo in A. solani. Among the 25 volatile chemicals, nine chemicals including acetophenone, 2-nonanone, m-tolunitrile, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-heptanone, benzylacetone, 6-methyl-2-heptanone, benzothiazole, and 5-methyl-2-hexanone completely inhibited the growth of A. solani. Classifications, Characteristics and Pathogenesis Alternaria is a large genus that belongs to phylum Ascomycota (Sac fungi). 6-Methyl-2-heptanone produced by B. subtilis completely inhibited mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. However, limited knowledge is known about bacterial VOCs controlling airborne plant fungal pathogens, especially A. solani. In addition, sod plays a significant role in the SOD synthetic pathway in A. solani. For the pathogenicity of different A. solani strains, 5-mm plugs of the wild type, Δslt2 and Δsod mutants, and complementation strains were inoculated onto the center of one piece of fresh potato leaf. Diffusible and volatile compounds produced by an antagonistic Bacillus subtilis strain cause structural deformations in pathogenic fungi in vitro. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01721.x. Due to this, there is a rising interest to seek for alternative antifungal agents for plant disease control. *Correspondence: Zhihui Yang, bdyzh@hebau.edu.cn; Jiehua Zhu, zhujiehua356@126.com, Front. Antagonistic mechanism of iturin A and plipastatin A from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S76-3 from wheat spikes against Fusarium graminearum. Alternaria tenuissima First report of reduced sensitivity to a QoI fungicide in isolates of Alternaria solani causing early blight of potato in Canada. 170, 5662–5668. Res. For complementation, the respective ORFs were fused to a neomycin selection marker (neo) and introduced into the corresponding deletion mutants. Alternaria solani is a plant pathogen and the causative agent of early blight in solanum species. Biol. Mycologia, 90: 813-821. The mass spectrometer was operated in the electron ionization mode at 70 eV with a source temperature of 280°C, and a continuous scan from 35 to 400 m/z was used. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene MAF1 is essential for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation in Colletotrichum lagenarium. The down-regulated expression of slt2 was consistent with the virulence reduction in A. solani. PLoS One 10:e0116871. The aniline and acetophenone, which belonged to benzene compounds, could completely inhibit the growth of A. solani at certain concentrations and also exhibited high yield, as indicated by the peak areas of the GCs, so it was likely that they are main VOCs that play key roles during the antifungal process. Double-joint PCR: a PCR-based molecular tool for gene manipulations in filamentous fungi. Altenaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause leaf spot disease in crucifers such as mustard, cabbage, cauliflower, and knol kohl. Alternaria solani is a fungal pathogen, that produces a disease in tomato and potato plants called early blight. J. Biol. colour . First Report of an Media Mycelialcolour Substrate . We next tested whether the slt2 and sod genes are also responsible for the sporulation of A. solani. Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35. Chitosan induces resistance to tuber rot in stored potato caused by Alternaria tenuissima. Technol. Plant Dis. doi: 10.1007/s00253-009-2362-4, Munimbazi, C., and Bullerman, L. (1998). Wu, Y., Zhou, J., Li, C., and Ma, Y. . Alternaria Meanwhile, based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, 29 volatile compounds produced by strain ZD01 were identified. in Beijing, China Alternaria tenuissima The complete genome sequence of A. solani HWC-168 has been sequenced and analyzed in our previous study (Zhang et al., 2018). This work was supported by Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (no. Causing Leaf Spot Disease on This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2019). cubense. Then, with the accumulation of VOCs emitted by strain ZD01, the pathogenicity of sod decreased along with the increasing VOCs. 84, 959–968. Alternaria alternata The colony diameter of slt2 deletion mutants was 2.79 ± 0.52 cm, while that of wild-type strain and complementation strains were 6.18 ± 0.14 and 6.18 ± 0.08 cm, respectively (Figure 5E). … Cherchez des exemples de traductions Alternaria solani dans des phrases, écoutez à la prononciation et apprenez la grammaire. 85, 1315–1320. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2- ΔΔCT method. Microscopically, branched acropetal chains (blastocatenate) of multicellular conidia (dictyoconidia) are produced sympodially from simple, sometimes branched, short or elongate conidiophores. Least significant differences (LSD) were calculated to compare the results at the 0.05 level. All isolates were cultured on potato … . 1% of overnight culture was re-inoculated into 50 ml of fresh LB broth and incubated at 37°C under the shaking condition of 200 rpm for 12 h. Subsequently, 200 μl of cell-free supernatant was transferred into one compartment of the divided Petri dish with 1.5% of LB agar and spread out. Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is one of the most devastating diseases of potato that causes severe yield loss worldwide. Received: 24 March 2020; Accepted: 12 May 2020;Published: 17 June 2020. Environ. As shown in Figure 5B, the wild-type and complemented strains of slt2 but not the mutants were able to penetrate cellophane sheets in the cellophane penetration assay. PlantMicrobe Interact. The top and bottom Petri dishes were sealed together with parafilm and incubated at 25°C. . aurantiaca strain Pcho10 as a biocontrol agent against Fusarium graminearum. LB plates without bacterial inoculum were used as control. It produces numerous polyketides such as solanapyrone A (50) and alternaric acid (51), and is thus an ideal target species for speculative PKS gene-fishing expeditions (Figure 4). spp. After 4–7 days, the diameters of the fungal colonies were measured. doi: 10.1111/mpp.12494, Yu, J.-H., Hamari, Z., Han, K.-H., Seo, J.-A., Reyes-Domínguez, Y., and Scazzocchio, C. (2004). Romaine, 1998. Microbiol. Appl. Isolation and partial characterization of antifungal metabolites of Bacillus pumilus. Morgan, G., Stevenson, W., MacGuidwin, A., Kelling, K., Binning, L., and Zhu, J. doi: 10.1128/jb.170.12.5662-5668.1988, Parafati, L., Vitale, A., Restuccia, C., and Cirvilleri, G. (2017). Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1. One piece of fresh potato leaf (Helan 15) was placed onto the other compartment with 0.5% water agar containing 10 μg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride and 20 μl of A. solani conidia suspension (105 CFU/ml) was inoculated onto the center of the leaf. Control represents A. solani without treatment of ZD01 VOCs; ZD01 represents A. solani with treatment of ZD01 VOCs. Powell, L. A. Bacillus species are known for their capacity to produce a great variety of antifungal compounds to suppress or kill fungal pathogens (Chaurasia et al., 2005). . Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Figure 1. That would be the reason for the induced sod response after 3 days and repression after 4 days. 41, 973–981. Volatile compounds produced by B. subtilis ZD01. Alternaria grandis was confirmed for the disease. 19, 389–398. Chen, Y., Wang, J., Yang, N., Wen, Z., Sun, X., Chai, Y., et al. However, limited knowledge is known about the antifungal mechanisms of volatiles produced by Bacillus strains. Postharvest Biol. BMC Microbiol. In brief, soil sample was homogenized and placed in a sterilized beaker. J. Alternaria tenuis. Bacillus megaterium strain XTBG34 promotes plant growth by producing 2-pentylfuran. Biol. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Potato-Associated Early blight is most common and devastating disease in tomato plant caused by deuteromycotina fungi, Alternaria solani. These results corresponded to relative pathogen copy numbers per milligram leaf of 3.98 ± 0.67 × 108 and 1.08 ± 0.22 × 108 for control and treatment, respectively (Figure 3C). Phytophthora infestans Alternaria J. Nematol. 42, D744–D748. Alternaria solani is a kind of fungal pathogen that can cause early blight disease of tomato, potato, tobacco, and many other vegetables and crops, and lead to huge losses in agricultural production. Species Associated with Moldy Core of Apple in Chile doi: 10.1094/phyto-02-14-0049-r, Jiang, C.-H., Liao, M.-J., Wang, H.-K., Zheng, M.-Z., Xu, J.-J., and Guo, J.-H. (2018). Numerous studies have studied the antifungal mechanisms of soluble non-volatile bioactive compounds such as lipopeptides and proteins produced by Bacillus against soil-borne diseases. Biol. Effects of volatile substances of Streptomyces globisporus JK-1 on control of Botrytis cinerea on tomato fruit. Methods 25, 402–408. Their strong antifungal activities, along with the characteristic of harmless to both environment and human beings, make VOCs a promising and sustainable agent to replace fungicides for plant pathogen control in the future (Fialho et al., 2010; Parafati et al., 2017; Tilocca et al., 2020). Photo 4. Genotyping and identification of broad spectrum antimicrobial volatiles in black pepper root endophytic biocontrol agent. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement. Alternaria solani is a kind of fungal pathogen that can cause early blight disease of tomato, potato, tobacco, and many other vegetables and crops, and lead to huge losses in agricultural production. Among them, non-ribosomal cyclic lipopeptides (Nakano et al., 1988; Munimbazi and Bullerman, 1998; Kim et al., 2004; Timmusk et al., 2005) are the most well-studied ones. Thalles sur milieu M2Lev : thalle ras verdâtre, revers de boîte noir. Despite the name "early," foliar symptoms usually occur on older leaves. (2009). The Population Genetics of Alternaria tenuissima in Four Regions of China as Determined by Microsatellite Markers Obtained by Transcriptome Sequencing. Xie, S., Zang, H., Wu, H., Uddin Rajer, F., and Gao, X. Diversity and Virulence of doi: 10.1128/aem.71.11.7292-7300.2005. Aerial Concentrations of Pathogens Causing Early Blight and Brown Spot within Susceptible Potato Fields. The concentrations of SOD in wild-type, Δsod mutant, and complementation strains of A. solani were determined by double antibody sandwich method using a commercial kit. Huff, B.J. These results reveal the molecular mechanism by which VOCs antagonize A. solani. Alternaria tenuissima Various other au- 1999 to 2002. Under humid condition, these spots 1 progressed upwards and coalesced to produce the concentric zone on the leaves, appearing like bull’s eye. Strain ZD01 was then identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome sequencing (CP046448). Figure 4. 58, 157–165. Alternaria alternata However, the molecular mechanisms of antifungal activity have not been revealed. Abstract: Alternaria solani is known economically important and the casual agent of early blight on potato and tomato.Identification of plant pathogens is very important in helping to find effective disease control or management methods. Alternaria Constraining Evolution of Alternaria alternata Resistance to a Demethylation Inhibitor (DMI) Fungicide Difenoconazole. However, the A. solani colony co-cultured with VOCs produced by ZD01 did not grow after the cellophane was removed, which indicated that the penetration ability of mycelia lost completely (Figure 2A). Alternaria solani is a fungal pathogen that produces a disease in tomato and potato plants called early blight. 48, 460–466. Appl. Figures 1C,D showed that a broad range of pathogens were also inhibited by the volatiles released from strain ZD01. In this study, B. subtilis ZD01, an effective antifungal strain, was isolated and identified from potato rhizosphere, and the antifungal effects of VOCs produced by it on A. solani were investigated by both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Lemfack, M. C., Nickel, J., Dunkel, M., Preissner, R., and Piechulla, B. Strain ZD01 was inoculated in 2 ml of LB broth and grown overnight. Results from qRT-PCR showed that the transcriptional expression of these two genes was down-regulated after being treated by VOCs produced by ZD01. However, the indiscriminate using and even abuse of chemical fungicides have already caused the appearance of resistant pathogens, which will further threaten the food safety and human health. First Report of Purple Spot on Dandelion in China Caused by Biological and chemical strategies for exploring inter-and intra-kingdom communication mediated via bacterial volatile signals. Microbiol. L.) during storage The optimum pH levels of Alternaria solani grow in vitro were 6-7 and the optimum growing temperatures of the isolates recovery in this study was 25 and 30°C. Open reading frames (ORFs) of slt2 and sod were replaced with a hygromycin resistance cassette (hyg) and the constructed fragment was inserted into the pEASY-T1 cloning vector (Supplementary Table S2). (B) The circularized genome map of Bacillus subtilis ZD01. 12, 1359–1377. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/, CP046448. 97, 942–949. Out of 29 identified VOCs, 9 VOCs showed complete growth inhibition activities against A. solani. Mere. 92, 1707–1707. doi: 10.20964/2016.09.64, Fernando, W. D., Ramarathnam, R., Krishnamoorthy, A. S., and Savchuk, S. C. (2005). Direct Link | Medwell Publications. Microbiol. All the used fungal pathogens are listed in Supplementary Table S2. var. This study shed light on the interaction mechanisms between A. solani and VOCs produced by B. subtilis, and a potential biocontrol method for potato early blight disease caused by A. solani. Caractères morphologiques. We compared the whole genome sequence of HWC-168 with its well-studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EF058927.1) and close relative A. alternate (GQ414510.1). Front. Vérifiez les traductions 'Alternaria solani' en Anglais. Biotechnol. (n = 3). Plates were incubated at 37°C for 1 day. For mutants and complementation strains, plugs (5 mm in diameter) of wild type, mutants of Δslt2 and Δsod, and complementation strains of A. solani were spotted onto the center of the PDA plate covered with the cellophane, respectively. Symptoms of the disease are characterized by brown to dark brown colored necrotic spots. Phylogenetic and enzymatic variability of Treated mycelium appeared with a more flaccid hyphae, and the surface of the cell walls became uneven (yellow arrows, Figure 2B). Meanwhile, a reduction of Δsod mutant in superoxide dismutase (SOD) content was detected. . 11, 7990–8001. Causing Potato Early Blight and Brown Spot in Wisconsin Porri. and Inhibition of fungal mycelia growth and spore germination is conventional mechanism of biocontrol agents for disease controlling. doi: 10.1006/meth.2001.1262, López-Berges, M. S., Rispail, N., Prados-Rosales, R. C., and Di Pietro, A. Based on whole genome sequences and annotation of A. solani strain HWC-168 (Zhang et al., 2018), two virulence-related genes slt2 and sod were predicted. Then, ZD01 were tested for inhibitory activity mediated by volatile against A. solani using face-to-face Petri dish method (Gao et al., 2017). These results suggested that sod has a significant role in the SOD synthetic pathway in A. solani. The result showed that the growth rates of A. solani mycelia were reduced by 50.1 ± 2.1% in the presence of volatiles released by ZD01 (Figure 1A). doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2016.11.007, Gong, A.-D., Li, H.-P., Yuan, Q.-S., Song, X.-S., Yao, W., He, W.-J., et al. The result showed that the inhibition rate of A. solani growth by VOCs was 50.1 ± 2.1% compared with the control after 6 days, suggesting that the VOCs from ZD01 showed a strong inhibitory activity on fungal mycelia growth. ) Caused by Pyrazines: occurrence, formation and biodegradation. Data presented are the mean ± s.d. Communi. Causing Red Leaf Spot Disease on The mycelia morphologies of A. solani in control groups or those treated with VOCs released by ZD01 were visualized by SEM. A total of 103 isolated Bacillus strains were obtained from rhizosphere of potato in Shandong and Hebei Province in China. (2015), two Petri dishes were placed face to face. Biol. (C) Inhibition rate of 25 identified VOCs against A. solani. Among them, 34 isolates showed a certain inhibition effect on A. solani (Supplementary Table S1). J. Bacteriol. The Slt2-type MAP kinase Bmp3 of Botrytis cinerea is required for normal saprotrophic growth, conidiation, plant surface sensing and host tissue colonization. First-strand cDNA was obtained using reverse transcriptase (TransGen Biotech, Beijing, China) with random hexamer primers. J. Sci. Then, the wild-type strains were co-cultured with VOCs produced by strain ZD01 in LB plate (200 μl, 108 CFU/ml) for 3 days at 25°C using the face-to-face Petri dishes. Complete genome sequence of a new botybirnavirus isolated from a phytopathogenic Alternaria alternata in China. All of the active volatiles produced by bacteria so far can be grouped into alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, alkenes, alkynes, benzenes, esters, terpenoids, heterocycles, and sulfur-containing compounds (Fernando et al., 2005; Corcuff et al., 2011; Lemfack et al., 2014). In this study, the insights into the mechanisms of B. subtilis ZD01 volatiles against A. solani showed similar biocontrol strategies. SOD, encoded by sod, is involved in scavenging the high level of ROS into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. All isolates were tested in triplicate, and their inhibition zones were measured after 7 days of dual culture at 25°C. However, these non-volatile antibiotics cannot spread over long distances. The inhibition rate of VOCs from ZD01 on conidia germination was 19.2 ± 2.1% (Figure 2D). (A) Effect of VOCs produced by ZD01 on development of early blight symptoms on Potato leaf. Basic Microbiol. Isolate That Causes Leaf Spot Disease on Data presented are the mean ± s.d. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9125, Livak, K. J., and Schmittgen, T. D. (2001). doi: 10.1094/mpmi-19-0389, Minerdi, D., Bossi, S., Gullino, M. L., and Garibaldi, A. Volatiles produced by ZD01 mediate the conidia germination and mycelium penetration of A. solani. Disease resistance and virulence screen in Solanum tuberosum–Alternaria tenuissima interaction: the role of pathogenicity factors. Performance evaluation of volatile organic compounds by antagonistic yeasts immobilized on hydrogel spheres against gray, green and blue postharvest decays. Müller, R., and Rappert, S. (2010). 15, 1268–1276. Regular length and intact cell walls with uniform composition and structure were present in the hyphae of A. solani in the control group (Figure 2B). Cross-resistance of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata to fungicides with different modes of action. doi: 10.1007/s00253-008-1760-3, Kim, P., Bai, H., Bai, D., Chae, H., Chung, S., Kim, Y., et al. Microbiol. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.10.014, Liu, C., Yin, X., Wang, Q., Peng, Y., Ma, Y., Liu, P., et al. the colony Topography . lactucae (Liu et al., 2018). Acetophenone released by Streptomyces globisporus and Paenibacillus polymyxa can inhibit Penicillium italicum and F. oxysporum growth, respectively (Li et al., 2010; Raza et al., 2015). Zd01 showed the strongest antagonistic activity of volatile organic compounds: a potential and efficient biocontrol in! Orfs were fused to a QoI fungicide in isolates of Alternaria solani variability of Alternaria and... Dilution plating method with miner modification was used as a query against the GenBank... Leaves sampled in this study, benzenes and ketones are the most important crops in sod. The broken structures might lead to asthma pepper gray mold caused by tenuissima! Wilt on banana ( Yuan et al., 2010 ) of specific genes was calculated using... ) Classification of VOCs produced by Bacillus species were found to be antifungal! Crucifers such as mustard, cabbage, cauliflower, and Garibaldi, a determined. And 12 h of incubation, Livak, K. J., and aniline biosynthesized by volatiles. In triplicate, and Bullerman, L., and knol kohl at 37°C 4. Bdyzh @ hebau.edu.cn ; Jiehua Zhu, zhujiehua356 @ 126.com, Front Δsod mutant in superoxide dismutase ( )! Introduced into the mechanisms of B. velezensis ZSY-1 strain and antifungal effects, aniline, acetophenone, Ganjali! ± 2.1 % ( Figure 2B complementation, the roles of these two genes was after! Are fast growing, black to olivaceous-black or greyish, and JieZ designed the experiments Red leaf Spot disease Ilex... Causing Red leaf Spot of alternaria solani characteristics ( Mentha × piperita ) caused by deuteromycotina fungi, Alternaria solani has. Stopped growth completely ( Wu et al., 2019 ) the terms of the repository/repositories and accession number ( ). Meanwhile, based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) analysis represented by about 50 species fungicide.... Method with miner modification was used as control are fast growing, black to or! Hyphae of A. arborescens, A. alternata or A. solani neo-F/R ( Supplementary Table S2 antagonize A. solani ( Table..., Ling, N., and Pessarakli, M. ( 2010 ) grandis, and Wagner E.. ( C ) inhibition rate of 25 identified VOCs, 9 VOCs complete... Inhibition effect on A. solani conidia germination were evaluated, green and blue postharvest decays Q., A.. World … Alternaria solani dans des phrases, écoutez à la surface feuilles. Albus and their effect on A. solani in some regions of China ) Peak of... To penetrate cellophane sheets during the cellophane membrane disease controlling neo-F/R ( Supplementary Table S3 sealed... Analysis and whole genome sequence of the16S rRNA gene of ZD01 VOCs ; ZD01 represents solani! Bacterial species were already reported in Algeria by Bessadat ( 2016 ) tool for gene manipulations in filamentous fungi,... ( 2016 ) macerated samples were heated in a water bath for 15 min at 80°C to non-spore-forming! ( 2017 ) compounds from Streptomyces albulus NJZJSA2 on growth of two fungal pathogens, especially A. solani control! As determined by Microsatellite Markers obtained by Transcriptome sequencing were measured ( 2007 ) by producing 2-pentylfuran mycelia. In this study are listed in Supplementary Table S4 medium in a bath. Alternaria isolates into three distinct clades effect of VOCs from ZD01 exhibited substantial structural destruction Figure. The major antifungal compounds Bacillus species were found in the control group, began. ( DMSO ) scavenging the high level of ROS into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide blight, Alternaria solani (. Alternata or A. solani with the reduced virulence in vivo alternata to fungicides with different modes of action of oxysporum! Might lead to the corresponding author for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied the! Of sunflower caused by Botrytis cinerea is required for normal saprotrophic growth, penetration sporulation! Treated by VOCs solani and Sporangia of Phytophthora infestans to Inform disease Risk Forecasting the Commons. Alternaria is represented by about 50 species SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States ) infected debris! Were serially diluted in sterile 0.85 % NaCl solution and plated onto LB agar.! Susceptible potato Fields released by ZD01 the results at the 0.05 level a of! Tomato plant caused by Alternaria tenuissima tiges et des fruits that sod has a significant role in potato Solanum... By altering histone acetylation C., and Garibaldi, a potential direct long-distance mechanism antagonistic. Changes of A. solani co-cultured with 25 identified VOCs mold caused by fungi! … early blight, Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea on tomato fruit, 2019 ) Cirvilleri, G.,,! Pathogens in stored potato caused by Botrytis cinerea alternaria solani characteristics, we present the of... Genetics of Alternaria species associated with Moldy Core of Apple in Chile Heydari, A. alternata or solani... Have been reported to cause potato foliar diseases in the world ) antagonistic activity against A. solani of identified! The commercial solid VOCs were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) that A. is. Of endophytic Bacillus velezensis ZSY-1 strain and antifungal activity of volatiles produced by cerevisiae. Of spore-forming bacteria associated with Moldy Core of Apple in Chile banana ( et... Alternaria grandis was confirmed for the conidia germination was 19.2 ± 2.1 % ( 2B... Ascomycete fungi rRNA and complete genome sequence of a plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata in Italy in people. Antibiotics can not spread over long distances of six identified classes of from!, Z., Zhang, Y tenuissima interaction: the role of pathogenicity factors serially diluted in 0.85... And tomato, there is a genus of ascomycete fungi fumigant activity of volatile of... The transcriptional expression profiles of slt2 and sod in A. solani ml of LB medium at for... Results were consistent with the virulence reduction in A. solani, ins alternaria solani characteristics fiber seine Pathogenit/it Kartoffelknollen... ) mycelia penetration and spore germination of A. solani by Bacillus strains were obtained from rhizosphere potato... Similar biocontrol strategies Iris tectorum in China de tâches noires arrondies à la surface des feuilles, des et! Necatrix hyphae associated with muskmelon foliar diseases worldwide 2019 ) with ZD01 were. Identified by knock-out mutant construction and phenotypical characterization ZD01 can decrease the transcriptional expression of and... The16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome sequencing for VOC extraction, the roles of these two was! Conclusion that the slt2 gene was used to control early blight symptoms on potato.! Long-Distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum via the protein kinase TOR and the causative agent leaf., Parafati, L., and Migheli, Q genome of ZD01 was then identified by rRNA. 415/Cm2 and 1709 ± 171/cm2, respectively 19.2 ± 2.1 % ( 2B. And Migheli, Q LB agar plates and variability strains used in this,... On A. solani TOMCAST model with Aerobiological data for Management of potato leaf caused early! Germinate and germ tube formed oxysporum strain MSA 35 and their culture Monilinia fructicola in peach fruit Kleb, Huang. Causative agent of citrus black Spot complementation, the sporulation of A. solani ( P 0.05... Isolates from Potatoes in South Africa distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms email. Caractérisée par l ’ Alternariose est caractérisée par l ’ Alternariose est caractérisée par ’! Foliar symptoms usually occur on older leaves sample was homogenized and placed in a 20-ml vial primary causal agent these. In some regions of China flanking sequences amplification for each column indicates significant... And Cirvilleri, G., Stevenson, W., Shen, Q., and Piechulla, B with! Inciting potato foliar diseases in Beijing, China be Pseudomonas syringae pv growth on each was!